# Kinematics Concepts in Physics that are Covered by a Private Tutor in Singapore

Physics is one of the major subjects that almost every upper secondary school student in Singapore has to learn. It can be quite a challenging Science subject for many students since it involves both complex concepts as well as complicated Maths calculations. As a result, a parent with a child who is struggling in Physics usually turns to a private tutor Singapore is famous for. Good private tutors can easily be hired from recognised tuition agencies.

One of the key Physics topics that almost every student faces problems in is Kinematics. Kinematics is packed with so many definitions, concepts, and arguably one of the most mathematical topics in Physics. Let’s explore some of the Kinematics concepts that are covered by most private tutors in Singapore.

**Distance and Displacement**

Distance is the total length covered by a moving object irrespective of the direction of motion. Distance is any example of a scalar quantity. Scalar quantities have only magnitude. Displacement, on the other hand, is distance measured in a straight line in a specific direction. It is an example of a vector quantity. Vector quantities have both magnitude and direction.

**Speed and Average Speed**

Speed is defined as the distance moved per unit time or per second. The International System of Units or SI as it is commonly known as, unit of speed is metres per second or m/s. On the other hand, average speed is defined as the total distance travelled over the total time taken by a body.

**Velocity **

Velocity is defined as distance moved per unit time in a stated direction. The SI unit of velocity is m/s, similar to speed. If the velocity of a body is increasing, the body is accelerating. If the velocity of a body is decreasing, the body is decelerating.

**Acceleration, Deceleration and Uniform Acceleration**

The definition of acceleration is the rate of change of velocity or the change of velocity per unit time. Acceleration is calculated by taking the final velocity minus the initial velocity, before dividing that value by the time in seconds. The SI unit of acceleration is metres per second squared. When an object changes its velocity (or speed) to become slower, we can say that the object is experiencing deceleration or negative acceleration. Acceleration is said to be uniform if it remains constant over a period of time.

**Acceleration Due To Gravity**

When an object is allowed to fall freely under the earth’s gravitational pull, it falls with a constant acceleration. This acceleration is due to gravity and is approximately equal to 10 metres per second squared on earth. The acceleration due to gravity is usually denoted by g.

**Motion Of Bodies Falling In A Uniform Gravitational Field Without Air Resistance (Acceleration Of Free Fall)**

When a graph is plotted to show the motion of a body that is falling in a uniform gravitational field without air resistance, it is observed that the graph is a straight slanting line with positive gradient. Hence the body is moving with constant acceleration.

**Experiment To Show Acceleration Of Free Fall**

In a long tubular tube, a feather and a coin are released simultaneously. When air is in the tube, the feather drifted down slowly while the coin fell very quickly. When they are released together in vacuum, they reach the bottom of the tube together. When the feather and coin are allowed to fall freely in a vacuum, both increase their speed at a rate of 10 m/s every second. Hence, they have the same constant acceleration of 10 metres per second squared.